HUMANISTIC EDUCATION 163 So far as can be judged, the schools seem to have responded readily to the revived interest in letters. In the nature of the case, the change required to bring them into line with the renaissance view of life was much less than in the corres- ponding institutions of the north. Not only were the teachers to a considerable extent laymen, with minds more open to new ideas than the clergy, but the Latin language and literature had always retained a vitality in their own homeland which they could never have under any conditions among peoples to whom they came as an alien culture. It was comparatively easy, therefore, for the schools to free themselves from the stiff medieval discipline and to enter into the spirit of a movement that appealed equally to the national pride and to the new-found joy in life. The first man to give expression to the educational ideals of the renaissance was Pietro Paolo Vergerio (1349-1420), who taught logic in the university of Padua in the last decade of the Fourteenth Century. His service to education was twofold. He published an exposition of Quintilian's Education of an Orator, and wrote a treatise On the Manners of a Gentleman and on Liberal Studies. The former called attention to the ripe educational wisdom of the great Roman teacher, and set his textbook off on a new career of inspiration and practical helpfulness in an age even more appreciative of it than his own. Every educator of the Revival, whether man of theory or man of practice, whether on Italian or Teutonic soil, steeped himself in the text and in the spirit of this treatise of Quintilian's.* The latter of Vergerio's works, which enjoyed a great popularity and influence throughout the next two centuries, summed up broadly and comprehensively the aim and methods of humanistic education. It was written for the guidance of the son of the lord of Padua, and it repeated many of the precepts which Quintilian had written for youths of the same class twelve centuries before. There was the same insistence on the value of an all-round education for the man of affairs, and the same recognition of the need to adapt the subjects to be learned to the individual bent and to the age of the pupil. The chief difference was that resulting from the attempt which Vergerio made to combine Roman education with the Christian conception of life. Just as -Sneas Sylvius (Pope Pius II) in a * Woodward, Education during the Renaissance, p. 9.